A surprisingly large number of massive stars have been spotted in regions across the universe, shedding new light on how galaxies near and far evolve, a new study shows.Massive stars in these galaxies produce outflows of gas and create supernova explosions, which release large amounts of energy and stellar material into space. This type of activity can have a significant impact on the area surrounding these stars, according to a statement from the European Southern Observatory (ESO)Using a new technique similar to radiocarbon dating, the researchers looked for signatures of different types of carbon monoxide to determine the mass distribution of stars in the starburst galaxies. While oxygen isotopes are associated with larger, more massive stars, carbon isotopes are associated with smaller, intermediate-mass stars, Zhi-Yu Zhang, lead researcher and astronomer from the University of Edinburgh, said in the statement. Because carbon and oxygen combine to form carbon monoxide, this means different variations of carbon monoxide form more frequently in larger stars than in smaller ones.
Using ESO’s Very Large Telescope, a team of researchers from the University of Oxford detected exceptionally massive stars in 30 Doradus, which is the brightest star-forming region in our galactic neighborhood.
“Our findings lead us to question our understanding of cosmic history,” Rob Ivison, co-author of the study and director for science at ESO, said in the statement. “Astronomers building models of the universe must now go back to the drawing board, with yet more sophistication required.”
The new work was detailed June 4 in the journal Nature.